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Get Thee to a Spaceport! August 13, 2018

Posted by Peter Varhol in Uncategorized.
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To many of my generation, the United States has a singular space launch facility, at Cape Canaveral, Florida.  Thanks to my time in the Air Force, I know of at least three others – Wallops Island, Virginia (a NASA complex); Vandenberg AFB, California, and the Kodiak Launch Complex on Kodiak Island, Alaska.  Thanks to my personal interest in space exploration, I know of two more – Spaceport America, in Truth or Consequences, New Mexico, and the Blue Origin launch complex near Van Horn, Texas.

But wait!  There are more.  Elon Musk has his own with SpaceX, of course, on the Texas coast (although SpaceX and Blue Origin use Cape Canaveral for operational launches right now).  Oddly, there is also the Oklahoma Spaceport, Cecil Spaceport in Jacksonville, Florida; and the Mojave Air and Space Port in the California desert.  The newest licensed spaceport is at Ellington Field in Houston, although it cannot yet support launches or recoveries.

Complicated?  Yeah.

The dynamics of achieving orbit are complex, but like any physics problem, consistent.  There is a small but distinct advantage in launching close to the Equator (at least for east-west launches), in effect using the Earth’s rotation to help propel a rocket upward.  Probably the most efficient is the Guiana Space Center, in French Guiana and within about five degrees of the Equator, used by the European Space Agency for many manned and unmanned launches.  Tyura Tam, in Kazakhstan, is also comfortably close to the Equator.  Tyura Tam (Baikonur), once a part of the larger Soviet Union, is now leased by the Russians for their launches.

Here in the US, the Kennedy Space Center is used for all manned launches (regrettably none over the last several years).  It launches Equatorially, to the east, over the Atlantic Ocean, in order to minimize the chance of failures over populated areas.  Vandenberg and Kodiak both launch into polar orbits, once again over the ocean.

There have been many other sites around the world that have been used for space launches.  China, Japan, and India have all launched unmanned satellites into orbit, and many other countries have designated spaceports.  Certainly over one hundred sites worldwide have either launched vehicles or are capable of doing so.

That begs the question why.  The manned space program has certainly garnered the lion’s share of popular attention, but hundreds of satellites are launched into space every year.  While many of these are launched from Cape Canaveral or Vandenberg, the volume is simply too great for those two sites alone.  Navigation, geophysical and environmental (including farming), Internet, and of course military are just a few of the uses for satellites today.

In an era where the US has largely depended upon commercial firms to deliver satellites and other payloads, the proliferation of US spaceports both lowers costs and gets satellites in orbit faster.  It also helps develop an industrial base in nontraditional parts of the country.

The majority of US spaceports today are that in name only; few if any launches are occurring outside of Cape Canaveral/Kennedy, Wallops Island, and Vandenberg.  But as the need for orbital launch capabilities heats up, some of the others are in on the ground floor.

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